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            1. 國粹云

              京劇版《卡路里》:用流行方式傳播京劇不跌份兒

              國粹云 http://www.sanxiayc.com 2019-04-24 08:58 出處:網絡 編輯:@國粹云
              京劇版《卡路里》:用流行方式傳播京劇不跌份兒

              京劇版《卡路里》:用流行方式傳播京劇不跌份兒

              新京報漫畫/趙斌

                一曲京劇版的《卡路里》走紅網絡,起因是一位名為賈懷胤的京劇演員,為了向學生證實他也會唱流行歌曲,即興發揮用京劇演唱了一段火箭少女的熱曲《卡路里》。有網友聽后表示,已經忘記了原唱,也有網友覺得,京劇版《卡路里》在格調上比原曲高多了,還有的網友則覺得,這樣的做法是“惡搞”國粹,有點兒不合適,這種“跨界創造”究竟跌份兒嗎?

                京劇與流行音樂產生聯系,是兩相得利

                好聽到讓人忘記原唱,那是因為京劇是人類非物質文化遺產,有200多年歷史打底,中間經歷無數表演藝術家的傳承。到了賈懷胤這一代,京劇雖然落寞了,但“唱念做打”的基本功仍然是很扎實的。網友認為京劇版《卡路里》比“火箭少女”演唱的格調要高,倒不見得是非黑即白的二元論,而是瞬間被隱藏在這首新神曲背后的文化意味所折服。

                京劇版《卡路里》如此受歡迎,是因為人們壓根都不會想到京劇會與流行音樂產生關系,這種戲劇化的沖突與融合,恰好符合社交媒體“求新求異”的傳播規律。出乎大家意料的是,這樣的跨界結合,非但沒有給人以荒誕感,反而解決了一些“傲慢與偏見”——京劇不是那么高高在上、凜然不可侵犯,《卡路里》也未必是庸俗的口水歌,兩相得利,這大概是京劇粉絲與“火箭少女”粉絲都愿意看到的事情。

                用娛樂心態參與傳統文化推廣是有可能的

                2008年,著名相聲藝術家姜昆對網絡上的“惡搞”行為開炮,稱網絡惡搞是“下三路”的東西,是“流氓”文化。放在十年前,賈懷胤用京劇演唱《卡路里》,沒準也會被歸類于“惡搞”,遭到前輩們的嚴厲批評,但現在的確時代變了。相聲界以及京劇界的老人們都變得開明起來(抑或他們不熟悉社交媒體,失去了發聲渠道),而新人們則開始勇敢地嘗試擁抱新時代,網民們的眼光也變得寬容,這使得京劇在千變萬化的全媒體時代有了多種可能性。

                年輕的京劇大咖王佩瑜,頻繁出現于各類綜藝節目,在談話類節目《圓桌派》、演唱類節目《跨界歌王》、真人秀節目《奇葩大會》、脫口秀節目《吐槽大會》中,均給人留下深刻印象,尤其是在《吐槽大會》里,她不僅要接受其他嘉賓對于京劇自身的吐槽,也要變身為吐槽者,以京劇演員的身份去制造“梗”,來實現與流行文化的碰撞與交流。師承名門,學院派教育,出色的專業素養,靈活的應變能力,使得王佩瑜成為名副其實的京劇偶像與流行文化明星。

                藝術傳承的關鍵在于人,這在很長一段時間內,都被當成保護傳統戲劇的金規鐵律。無論是直接傳承人還是間接傳承人,都承擔了巨大的文化責任,甚至這責任會成為難以承受之重。王佩瑜也好,賈懷胤也好,他們的價值在于堅守住了京劇的藝術魅力核心,更在于把重任輕松化解,以娛樂的心態去參與京劇藝術的推廣,這保證了京劇在縱向的時間線索上不斷裂的同時,也在橫向的空間范圍內實現了蒲公英式的傳播。

                內核不變,外在呈現方式可以創新嘗試

                弘揚京劇國粹,人才與傳播缺一不可。在京劇輝煌時代,梅蘭芳、程硯秋、周信芳、馬連良、張君秋、高慶奎等組成的陣容,可謂人才濟濟,但也要承認,他們是在當時文化娛樂消費比較單一的環境下,才得以成為主流明星的。現在像賈懷胤這樣的京劇人才有許多,但卻很難重現過去那種星光熠熠的場景,這不是“觀眾拋棄了京劇”這個簡單的定論就能說明問題的,而是在過去一二十年里,文娛消費環境、渠道、作品與產品都發生了巨大的變化,而被“京劇不能變”束縛住手腳的京劇界,卻沒能做到與時俱進,讓它的藝術魅力參與市場競爭。

                屬于京劇的嚴肅藝術內核不能變,但京劇的外在呈現方式,尤其是傳播方面的多樣化,都要進行創新嘗試。從梅蘭芳時代,這位京劇大師就頂住巨大壓力,在京劇的表現形式與傳播方式做出了很多創新工作。“梅派”的影響以及在美國推廣京劇獲得的成功,都是“求變”的結果。梅蘭芳之子梅葆玖生前也曾表示,“京劇需要不斷創新,虛擬影像、立體音效、LED展示等現代科技方式和手段完全可以為京劇服務”……發展到今天,“一個動作也不能改”“一句唱腔也不能變”等戴在京劇脖子上的“紙枷鎖”,其實已經失去了存在的土壤。

                “人類非物質文化遺產”與“國粹”這兩個榮譽,并不意味著京劇要與外部環境變化斷裂,真正的文化遺產與國粹,是要通過一次次地被發現、被欣賞、被消費,才能得以綻放藝術活力、獲取長久藝術生命力。被公眾所看到、所追捧,要比停留在榮譽的光環里故步自封重要得多。

                因此,不但王佩瑜、賈懷胤要繼續勇敢地嘗試對京劇進行推廣,其他京劇表演藝術家、演員、學生,也要有這樣一個認識:用流行方式來傳播京劇不跌份。陳凱歌電影《梅蘭芳》中以京劇大師譚鑫培為原型的十三燕有一句臺詞很動人,“輸不丟人,怕才丟人”,京劇界人士不要怕,要相信這個多元、包容的時代,給京劇發展提供的空間是空前大的,看只看京劇從業者的自我挖掘與開發能力了。

                韓浩月(評論人)


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