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            1. 國粹云

              戲曲舞臺“文強武弱”?別忘了,成龍、洪金寶等都出身于戲班武生

              國粹云 http://www.sanxiayc.com 2018-12-26 10:00 出處:網絡 編輯:@國粹云
              戲曲舞臺“文強武弱”?別忘了,成龍、洪金寶等都出身于戲班武生

              戲曲舞臺“文強武弱”?別忘了,成龍、洪金寶等都出身于戲班武生

              無論是武俠小說的流行還是武俠題材影視劇的火爆,都足以證明武俠在大眾流行文化占有重要一席。然而,戲曲舞臺上卻呈現出“文強武弱”的局面。 12月21日晚,一場名為“京武門”的浸入式講演在上海人民廣播電臺舉辦,上海京劇院國家一級演員奚中路帶領大家走進了京劇武戲之門,與觀眾分享了京劇武生的發展,同時通過說、演、互動,全方位體驗了“大武生”魅力的同時,也激起大家對于“武戲生態”的思索。

              最早,武生戲由老生兼演

              戲曲舞臺“文強武弱”?別忘了,成龍、洪金寶等都出身于戲班武生

              戲曲武戲的源流可以追溯到漢代的“百戲”,后代逐漸有發展。戲曲發展至清中葉,出現了諸腔競爭的繁榮時期,武戲也由此產生了無限的生機。京劇正是形成于清朝,作為一門集大成的綜合性藝術形式,京劇武生逐漸確立了自身的地位,形成了自己的表演特色和流派。

              “一開始沒有京劇武生這個專屬行當,武生戲是由老生兼演的,比如早期的楊月樓,作為老生演員演武戲,還兼演‘猴戲’。”奚中路說。從京劇武生創始人楊隆壽到他的學生茹萊卿、張淇林,從俞菊笙到楊小樓、尚和玉、程繼先、葉春善、厲慧良、李春來,從李萬春 、李少春到江南“活武松”蓋叫天,奚中路如數家珍,將京劇武生中的北派與南派武生宗師一一介紹。

              “楊小樓雖然出身京劇世家,卻被前輩認定是象牙飯桶,中看不中用,但是他通過結交三十六友切磋技藝、勤學苦練,終成大家。這可不是隨口說說的成功學,而是勤能補拙、因材施教的活例證。”

              武生宗師們的傳奇故事引人入勝,臺下的觀眾都聽得入了迷。厲慧良曾經指導過奚中路,奚中路對厲先生的故事敘述得更是繪聲繪色,厲慧良在獄中偷偷堅持練功的情節聽來堪比“美劇”。而蓋叫天“斷腿再接”的故事更是驚心動魄,讓人想起關羽“刮骨療毒”的傳說。

              大武生,不只是炫技

              戲曲舞臺“文強武弱”?別忘了,成龍、洪金寶等都出身于戲班武生

              京劇有句表演口訣叫“小生緊,旦角松,老生弓,花臉撐,武生在當中”。奚中路也“科普”了一下怎么打好武生的基礎,比如武生的開蒙戲第一出要學《探莊》,橫平豎直打基礎;第二出學《麒麟閣》,是老生勁;第三出學《狀元印》,是花臉勁;第四出《武文華》就是純武生勁。而武生這個行當下面還細分了長靠武生、短打武生、箭衣武生、勾臉武生等,有些武生還兼演“猴戲”,也就是專門扮演孫悟空的戲。

              講座中,配合奚中路的講解,上海京劇院的青年演員展示其中三個細分行當的表演:如長靠武生的《挑滑車》片段,讓人感受到武將上陣殺敵的威風凜凜;短打武生和武丑過招的《三岔口》片段,呈現輕裝上陣的矯健靈活以及摸黑打斗的驚心動魄;箭衣武生的戲則體現了兼具長靠、短打兩種表演風格的特點,現場表演的《洗浮山》本身是難得一見的“冷門戲”,展示的片段表現的是武林高手深夜潛行,和鑼鼓配合簡直是“自帶特效”。奚中路在現場即興發揮的“趕飛機忘帶護照”的一段小品,生動展現了京劇鑼鼓與演員的表演相配合表現出人物的喜怒哀樂,并且還能配合劇情營造氣氛。

              武戲帶觀眾進入一個伸手可及的“江湖”

              戲曲舞臺“文強武弱”?別忘了,成龍、洪金寶等都出身于戲班武生

              武戲是最容易帶觀眾“入門”戲曲的演出類型。戲臺上的武戲不只是武術和雜技,而是化武為“舞”塑造人物形象,對演員身體語言的要求更高。在現場觀摩武戲,它能帶觀眾進入一個伸手可及的“武林”、“戰場”、“江湖”……,這是雜技和武術表演所不能替代的劇場藝術。

              另一方面,武戲的衰微是戲曲表演傳統的流失。有人覺得武戲離我們很遠,但它其實就在我們身邊。在華語電影界,武打片不僅風靡中國更是走向世界,著名的“元家班”中包括袁和平、成龍、洪金寶等人都來自戲班,曾在戲班中學習武丑、武生的行當。著名打星于榮光等也是京劇武生出身。

              尋根溯源,戲班是武打電影的“根”。從電影回到戲曲舞臺,近年來,各大戲曲院團頗為重視武戲的傳承和武戲演員的培養。通過武戲基本功的集訓、老藝術家“傳幫帶”、比賽、專場演出等形式,形成傳承和培養體系,不僅培養了武戲的后繼力量,也讓社會各界更多關注這門高難度的藝術門類。

              作為上海戲曲廣播“九州百戲”項目旗下的公益品牌,《國藝開講》將繼續邀請各領域的藝術家走上講臺,以多媒體呈現加互動式參與的形態,普及傳統藝術,詮釋當代審美,邀請年輕聽眾走近傳統,融入國藝。

              欄目主編:李君娜

              文字編輯:李君娜

              圖片編輯:項建英


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