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            1. 國粹云

              宋德珠的戲曲人生:如何成為京劇武旦挑班第一人?

              國粹云 http://www.sanxiayc.com 2018-07-21 08:48 出處:網絡 編輯:@國粹云
              一提“四大名旦”,梅蘭芳、尚小云、程硯秋、荀慧生的名字無人不知。其實,在戲曲界,還有“四小名旦”,京劇名家宋德珠即是其中之一。

              中新網客戶端北京7月21日電(記者上官云)一提“四大名旦”,梅蘭芳、尚小云、程硯秋、荀慧生的名字無人不知。其實,在戲曲界,還有“四小名旦”,京劇名家宋德珠即是其中之一。

              宋德珠的戲曲人生:如何成為京劇武旦挑班第一人?

              宋德珠舊時小影

              宋德珠出生于1918年,是京劇宋派藝術的創立者,今年恰逢其誕辰100周年。在世人耳中,他的名字稍顯陌生,但在上個世紀三四十年代,“宋德珠”三個字足可媲美今天的當紅影視明星,他也和李世芳、張君秋、毛世來并稱為“四小名旦”,一生與戲曲結下不解之緣。

              幼年,宋德珠的家境比較貧苦,父親去世很早,靠母親開茶館維持生計。那時,一家人住在崇文門附近,不遠處有一所戲校,合計一番后,1930年,宋德珠成為中華戲曲專科學校第一期“德”字班學生。

              這所戲校是由大名鼎鼎的焦菊隱先生創辦的,屬于新型戲校。不光學生著裝干練整齊,還匯集了高慶奎、馮蕙琳、王瑤卿等名師,梅蘭芳、程硯秋等藝術大師也會過來授課。

              宋德珠的戲曲人生:如何成為京劇武旦挑班第一人?

              宋德珠《扈家莊》劇照

              “戲校很看重文化課,歷史、地理的,都會學一些。”宋德珠的女兒宋丹菊回憶,晚年父親還能說點英語、法語,跟當年這段學校經歷不無關系,“就是有一點,戲校是大鍋飯,常年白水熬白菜,吃傷了。父親畢業后很久,都不愛吃熬白菜”。

              入校之初,宋德珠學老生。一個偶然的機會,他代替同學演了一次武旦,大放光彩,自此轉行。老師們都看好他,開始給他“開小灶”,這倒不是說可以吃得好,而是學藝又加碼了:上了一天課,別人休息,他被送到老先生那里繼續學戲。

              對宋德珠來說,那是一種近乎苦行僧式的生活。學戲講究苦練,越是在天特別冷、特別熱的時候,越要練得狠。他練“打出手”特意選在大風天,這樣練時雖不好掌握,但日積月累,功底扎實。

              宋德珠的戲曲人生:如何成為京劇武旦挑班第一人?

              宋德珠演出《蝶戀花》

              “常常父親兩三點才回來,睡不過幾個鐘頭,天不亮又起來練功了。”宋丹菊回憶,為了練好蹺功,冬天父親在后院潑水,結冰后,綁上硬蹺在冰上練,經常血、肉、汗水把布和腿肚粘在一起。即便如此,第二天一早,還是照舊。

              他的一身功夫,就是這么練出來的。

              憑著天賦、勤奮,在校期間,宋德珠已經嶄露頭角。同窗王金璐曾回憶,宋德珠扮相很媚,老師和同學們都很喜歡他。表演上,宋德珠“打出手”更是一絕,既穩且帥,入學第三年,就能演許多戲。還經常給程硯秋先生搭戲。

              宋德珠的戲曲人生:如何成為京劇武旦挑班第一人?

              宋德珠(左)指導宋丹菊學戲

              不過,宋德珠之成為宋派,始于旅滬演出。著名戲曲作家翁偶虹曾表示,宋德珠組建的穎光京劇社出名后,即受聘于上海黃金大戲院。在那場《金山寺》中,宋德珠的整套“醉花陰”載歌載舞、儀態萬千,“只一大刀下場的亮相,硬蹺矗立五分鐘之久,如玉樹生根,紋絲不動,觀眾亦喝彩五分鐘”。

              宋德珠是京劇史上武旦挑班的第一人。在幾十年的生命歷程里,他演出了《楊排風》《扈家莊》《戰金山》等一批劇目;在藝校教書時,培養了一批人才。這些學生和他的女兒,后來也在繼續唱戲、教戲,傳承宋派藝術。

              1984年,宋德珠因病辭世。臨終前,還在醫院的病床上為他人講述表演經驗。他常說,自己一生摯愛戲曲,此外,“我來的時候什么都沒有,走的時候什么也不帶走”。(文中圖片由宋丹菊提供)(完)

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