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            1. 國粹云

              京劇知識:談京劇唱念中四聲的運用

              國粹云 http://www.sanxiayc.com 2019-06-26 16:17 出處:網絡 作者:張東東 編輯:@國粹云
              京劇知識:談京劇唱念中四聲的運用

              怎樣才能使京劇表演中的唱、念,做到唱得入耳,念得好聽,使唱和念有獨特的“味兒”,一直是學習京劇藝術的人們所不懈追求的。人的嗓音條件是不可能完全相同的。有的人嗓音天賦好,若是唱、念不得法,功夫下得不深,也不能唱、念出韻味醇厚、高妙的曲調來;有的人天賦差,嗓音有一定的缺欠,若能在唱、念中運用正確的方法,用心鉆研,同樣能唱、念出巧奪天工的動聽之聲。前輩藝術家余叔巖的天賦就不如譚鑫培,楊寶森的天賦就差于余叔巖,裘盛戎就不如金少山的天賦好,但他們卻都各自創出風格,形成了流派,成為京劇表演藝術的珍寶。由此可見,唱、念之法是極為重要的,得之與失之有天壤之別。 

                  京劇中的唱念是很有講究的,下面我就四聲這一個方面談談自己的心得。 

                  京劇中的唱念講究“韻味”。京劇演員的唱念藝術是由唱詞、引子、詩對、念白等組成的。這些藝術語言要唱、念得字正腔圓才能使廣大觀眾聽得懂,并感人入耳,好聽。怎樣才能做到這點呢? 方法就是要掌握四聲的不同。 

                  京劇的四聲是陰平、陽平、上聲、去聲。古漢語中的四聲一般是指平、上、去、入四聲,古時對四聲的理解有不少的口訣,如:“平聲哀而安,上聲厲而舉,去聲清而遠,入聲直而促。”又如:“平聲長言,上聲短言,去聲重言,人聲急言。”還有許多口訣在此就不一一例舉了。

                  現在把運用四聲的方法、規則表述如下,當然,需要說明的是,任何規則在實際使用中都要求活用。 

                  我們可以把“開門掃地”這四個字組成的一句話為例,說明陰、陽、上、去四聲的用法。 

                  刻板規定四聲的唱法是: 

                  “開”是陰平,陰平的唱念要用陰平音,“開”就念開音,但陰平聲亦可改念陰平字的去音(但要平念,不同于去聲,去聲字尾音向上去) 。這是陰平字需要改變陰平字本音的時候的靈活用法。

                  “門”是陽平,陽平不念本音,要改念陽平字的上聲或去聲,就是“門”不能念門音,要念成 門字的上聲音和門的去聲音“悶”音皆可。但京劇有使用京韻白說法,這種念法是“陽平可變”, 用念成陽平字的陰平音,亦可使用念成陰平字的陽平音。 

                  “掃”是上聲,上聲念本音,但念上音的本音時要念成向上滑的音,上聲亦可改念為陽平音,還可改念上聲的去聲音,但音要向上滑。掃字還可改念成掃字的陽平音或去聲音。這是在兩個上聲音相遇成上下句,前后句時需要活用。 

                  “地”是去聲,去聲念本音,但字尾收韻時要上去,去聲亦可改念上聲音(但不使用上的滑音)。就是說“地”可改念成“底”音,這是在兩個去聲相遇時或上下句、前后字時需要活用。 

                  陰、陽、上、去四聲在京劇唱念中的使用法,可按以下口訣: 

                  陰念陰去莫低昂,陽平改念去與上; 

                  若遇特殊用陽處,可念陰還可念陽; 

                  逢上必滑猛力強,上聲亦可念去陽; 

                  去聲變化上入陽,去聲亦可改念上; 

                  入聲低短急收止,入聲納入陰去上。 

                  例如《失街亭》的大引子“羽扇綸巾,四輪車,快似風云,陰陽反掌定乾坤,保漢家,兩代賢臣”:“羽”上聲,念本音向上滑的音。“扇”去聲,念本音尾韻,向上句。“綸”陰平,念本音。“巾”陰平(因綸巾兩字是兩個陰平字,相遇念一陽一去)。“四”去聲,念本音尾韻向上句。

              “輪”陽平,念去聲。“車”陰平,念本音。“快”去聲,念上聲。“似”去聲,念本音尾韻向上句(因快似兩字是兩個去聲字相遇,念一上一去,或一去一上亦可)。“風”陰平,念本音。“陽”陽平念上聲。“反”上聲,念去聲。“掌”上聲,念本音向上滑的音(因反掌兩字是上聲字,相遇念一去一上,或一陽一去亦可)。“定”去聲,念本音尾韻向上句。“乾”陽平,念去聲。“坤” 陰平念本音,“保”上聲,念本音向上滑的音。“漢”去聲,念本音尾韻向上句。“家”陰平念本音。“兩”上聲,念本音向上滑的音。“代”去聲,念本音尾韻向上句。“賢”陽平,念上聲。“臣”陽平,念去聲,因賢臣兩字是兩陽平相遇,念一上一去。 

                  以上是按刻板規定使用四聲,可做到字正,但需靈活運用。又如《失街亭》的唱段“兩國交鋒龍虎斗,各為其主統貔貅”:“兩”上聲,念陽平。“國”(原多入聲,因北方無聲,歸并到上聲去)上聲,念去聲(兩上聲相遇念一陽一去)。“交”陰平,念本音。“鋒”陰平,念去聲(兩陰平相遇念一陰一去)。“龍” 陽平, 念上聲。“虎”上聲,念去聲。“斗”去聲,念本音尾韻向上句。“各”去聲,念上聲。“為”去聲,念本音尾韻向上。(各、為是兩去聲字,相遇念一上一去)。“其”陽平,念上聲。“主”上聲,念本音向上滑的音。“統”上聲,念陽平。“貔”陽平,念上聲。“貅”陰平,念本音。綜上所述,唱念在四聲運用上是一個道理,運用得法,字即可正。 

                  所謂“字正腔圓”,腔是指唱腔。唱腔演繹的是藝術語言,在唱腔中,一個字的表述時間可以拉到很長,它突破了生活語言的格,能更好地抒發感情,并不影響對這句話本意的理解。因為唱腔能傳情達意,是用音樂去感染人,而形成唱的藝術。要在唱腔中達到“字正腔圓”的標準,“字正”用四聲去解決,“腔圓”亦需運用四聲來解決。 

                  唱腔中的每個字,在發音上都分為字首、字腹、字尾三部分,字首是出音部,字腹是落韻部, 字尾是收韻部。行腔要在字的腹部行,行完腔在尾音上收韻,它的公式是:唱——出音——落韻——收韻。運用這個規律就能達到唱的字正腔圓。如《空城計》的“先帝爺,下南陽,御駕三請”一句,在這句詞的“陽”字和“請”字上都有較長的腔,都是要在字首出音,字腹行腔,字尾收韻。 以此類推,要注意不要在字腹行腔中幾次用字尾收韻,這會影響唱腔的完整,應該引以為忌。 

                  綜上所述,四聲是京劇唱和念中十分重要的一個環節,它與五音、四呼、丹田、共鳴、氣口、抑揚頓挫、句讀、尖團、上口字等環節形成一個整體,相輔相成,不可或缺。總之,只有深鉆苦練,才能得心應手,運用自如,做到唱得好聽、念得入耳,有聲、有韻、有旋律、有氣勢、有其獨特的“味兒”。 


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