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            1. 國粹云

              戲曲表演的四種基本功

              國粹云 http://www.sanxiayc.com 2019-06-26 16:15 出處:網絡 編輯:@國粹云
              戲曲表演的四種基本功

              戲曲表演的四種藝術手段,也是戲曲表演的四項基本功。唱指歌唱,念指具有音樂性的念白,二者互為補充,構成歌舞化的戲曲表演藝術兩大要素之一的“歌”。做指舞蹈化的形體動作,打指武術和翻跌的技藝,二者相互結合,構成歌舞化的戲曲表演藝術兩大要素之一的“舞”。

              戲曲在長期發展的過程中,逐漸融合唱念做打各種藝術手段,為搬演故事、塑造人物服務。早在漢代百戲中就有《東海黃公》的節目,通過武術和雜技,表演簡單的故事。唐代盛行歌舞,以載歌載舞著稱。宋雜劇演出分“艷段”、“正雜劇”、“雜扮”三部分,把歌舞、戲劇、雜耍集于一臺,起了相互影響和融合的作用。元雜劇在表演上已有簡單的武打。明代弋陽、昆山諸腔勃興以后,在聲樂和舞蹈技藝的結合方面漸趨完善。清乾隆、嘉慶年間,徽調與漢調合流,繼承昆、弋的傳統,吸收各種地方戲的優點,逐步向京劇演變,大致到了同治、光緒前后,一個以唱念做打多樣統一的完整藝術形式才臻成熟。 

              戲曲劇種為數眾多,表演上運用的藝術手段各有側重。大抵搬演生活小戲的花鼓、采茶等系統的劇種,載歌載舞;由坐唱形式搬上舞臺的灘簧、曲子等系統的劇種,側重說唱;昆曲、高腔、皮簧、梆子系統的劇種,唱念做打四功并重。中華人民共和國成立以來,各劇種相互促進,共同提高,上述差別已逐漸縮小。目前,各劇種大都具備了唱念做打的藝術手段。

              戲曲演員按照傳統的規程,從小就從唱念做打幾個方面接受嚴格的基礎訓練,充分掌握了基本的技法和程式,熟悉了各種音樂語匯和舞蹈語匯,而后才能進行藝術創造。戲曲諺語說,“師傅領進門,修行在個人”,“領進門”是指口傳身授的傳藝,“靠個人”則指個人的揣摩、發揮與創造。戲曲演員幼時一面苦練基本功,一面拍曲學戲,學會幾出或十幾出傳統折子戲后,就開始登臺演出,在藝術實踐中逐漸學會體驗角色,熟悉并發揮唱念做打的藝術功能。缺少基本功,就失去創作的手段;僅擅基本功的技法和程式,也是難于創造鮮明的藝術形象的。

              基本功之一:唱 

              學習唱功的第一步是喊嗓、吊嗓,擴大音域、音量,鍛煉歌喉的耐力和音色,還要分別字音的四聲陰陽、尖團清濁、五音四呼,練習咬字、歸韻、噴口、潤腔等技巧。當演員掌握了這一切時,更重要的則是善于運用聲樂技巧來表現人物的性格、感情與精神狀態。幾百年來,戲曲美學中一直有傳聲與傳情的分歧,有的演員側重音色和唱腔旋律的美,講究唱出韻味;有的演員則著重中氣充沛、字正腔圓,主張首先要唱出感情。卓越的演員大都把傳聲與傳情結合起來,通過聲樂的藝術感染力,表現劇中人的心曲。 

              戲曲的唱,從來不是穿插在戲里的獨立的聲樂表演,而是塑造人物的重要手段之一。一些優秀劇目,安排唱段是根據劇情的需要,人物性格、思想、情緒發展的需要。通過優美的音樂形象來豐富和加強文學形象,訴諸觀眾的聽覺感官,正象做和打通過優美的舞蹈形象訴諸觀眾的視覺感官一樣。因而戲曲的唱,演員的技巧和修養都是決定藝術創造得失、高下的重要因素。對同一劇目的同一角色,由于演員的體驗、理解不同,也由于唱腔唱法不同,逐漸形成了演唱上各種意趣不同的藝術風格。

              不同的劇種,對唱的運用也有所不同。有的唱得多,動輒三五十句,甚至超過百句。有的唱得較少,在劇中人動情的時刻才設置大段的唱腔。唱得多的劇種,往往以唱代念,或介乎唱與念之間,潤腔較少。唱得少的劇種,大都在聲樂藝術上刻意求工,對行腔度曲,進行高度的提煉。 

              從戲曲發展的過程來看,唱腔的伴奏是由簡到繁的。古老劇種弋陽腔,采用一唱眾和的幫腔形式,僅用簡單的打擊樂伴奏。明嘉靖年間正式形成的昆山腔,發展為兼用笙、簫、笛、琵琶等管弦樂器伴奏,音樂效果大為增強。近代戲曲更加重視伴奏的襯托作用,逐漸增多了樂器的種類,并密切了聲樂和器樂的配合。也有些劇種在主要唱段中停止器樂伴奏,由演員獨唱“清板”,以突出聲樂的表現力。幫腔形式,目前在一些高腔系統的劇種中仍舊保留著,作為烘托氣氛、揭示人物內心世界的手段。 

              由于唱詞都是詩詞體,句法緊湊精練,文學性較強,因此更便于集中地抒發情感。此外,在敘事、寫景、爭辯、斥責等場合,一般也常發揮唱的功能,以增強藝術效果,并給人以美感享受。為了便于傳達感情、喚起共鳴,曲詞的文學性不尚典雅,而在于雅俗共賞、簡潔明快、涉筆成趣。

              在戲曲里,唱作為主要藝術手段之一,它不是單獨運用的,而是和念、做、打等藝術手段有機結合,融為一體,為塑造人物服務。


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