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            1. 國粹云

              花鼓戲百科知識,歷史、簡介、特色和傳統劇目

              國粹云 http://www.sanxiayc.com 2019-03-10 10:47 出處:網絡 編輯:@國粹云
              花鼓戲百科知識,歷史、簡介、特色和傳統劇目

              劇種簡介

              花鼓戲,是全國地方戲曲中同名最多的劇種。其中雖屬

              花鼓戲百科知識,歷史、簡介、特色和傳統劇目

              葉紅、李左《劉海砍樵》

              “湖南花鼓戲”最為著名。但湖南花鼓戲卻是一個籠統的劇種概念,因為湖南花鼓戲根據流行地區的不同可細分為:長沙花鼓戲(益陽花鼓戲)、岳陽花鼓戲(臨湘花鼓戲)、衡州花鼓戲(衡陽花鼓戲)、邵陽花鼓戲、常德花鼓戲、永州花鼓戲(零陵花鼓戲)等六個流派。因此,嚴格來講“湖南花鼓戲”并不是一個單一的地方劇種。通常所見到的湖南花鼓戲經典代表劇目如《劉海砍樵》、《打銅鑼、補鍋》等實為代表湖南花鼓戲的長沙花鼓戲中的劇目。但多數人并不能詳細清楚地了解這些概念,所以人們一般所說的湖南花鼓戲其實就是長沙花鼓戲。

              長沙花鼓戲形成初期是以舊長沙府(今長沙縣)為中心,后逐漸向周邊縣市輻射,其不只流行于長沙,在省內流傳甚廣,相對而言其它五個流派無論是流傳范圍還是知名程度來都遠不及長沙花鼓戲。因此,長沙花鼓戲順理成章地成為了湖南花鼓戲的代表。除岳陽花鼓戲之外,其它四個流派幾乎都只在其所處縣市或地區作代表性或象征性傳承。除湖南花鼓戲之外,在湖北有荊州花鼓戲(湖北花鼓戲)、黃孝花鼓戲、東路花鼓戲,安徽的鳳陽花鼓戲,皖南花鼓戲,河南的豫南花鼓戲(光山花鼓戲),浙江的桐鄉花鼓戲、包山花鼓戲、平湖花鼓戲等同名的地方劇種。 

              歷史溯源

              湖南花鼓戲源出于民歌,逐漸發展成為一旦一丑演唱的花鼓戲初級形式。1818年(清嘉慶廿三年)刊行的《瀏陽縣志》談及當地元宵節玩龍燈情況時說:“又以童子裝丑旦劇唱,金鼓喧闐,自初旬起至是夜止”。說明一旦一丑演唱的花鼓戲——地花鼓,最遲在清嘉慶年間已經形成。又據楊恩壽《坦園日記》1862年(清同治元年),楊恩壽在湖南永興觀看的“花鼓詞”(即花鼓戲)中,已有書生、書童、柳鶯、柳鶯婢四個角色,而且情節與表演都較生動,說明這時的花鼓戲不但已發展成“三小”(小旦、小丑、小生)戲,而且演出形式也具有一定規模。從聲腔和劇目看,初期以民間小調和牌子曲演唱邊歌邊舞的生活小戲,如《打鳥》、《盤花》、《送表妹》、《看相》等。后來,“打鑼腔”與“川調”傳入,才逐漸出現故事性強的民間傳說題材劇目。打鑼腔主要劇目有《清風亭》、《蘆林會》、《八百里洞庭》、《雪梅教子》等,川調主要劇目有《劉海戲蟾》、《鞭打蘆花》、《張光達上壽》、《趕子上路》等。這樣,便形成了藝術上比較完整的地方劇種。

              花鼓戲百科知識,歷史、簡介、特色和傳統劇目

              《劉海砍樵經》典劇照

              早期花鼓戲只有半職業性班社在農村作季節性演出,農忙務農,農閑從藝。光緒以來,這種班社發展較快,僅寧鄉、衡陽兩縣就有幾十副“行箱”,藝人近200人。訓練演員采取隨班跟師方式,也有收徒傳藝的,稱“教場”或“教館”,每場數十天,教三、四出戲。過去,由于花鼓戲經常遭受歧視和禁演,各地花鼓戲班都曾兼演當地流行的大戲劇目以作掩護,這種戲班稱“半臺班”或“半戲半調”、“陰陽班子”。中華人民共和國成立后,各地分別成立專業劇團,進入城市劇場公演。劉海砍樵為其經典曲目,膾炙人口,一直為人們傳唱。

              據1981年統計,全省有花鼓戲劇團54個,并成立了湖南省花鼓戲劇院。1957年,湖南省戲曲學校成立,設有花鼓戲專科。 傳統劇目 各地花鼓戲傳統劇目,總計約400多個,以反映民間生活為主,多以生產勞動、男女愛情或家庭矛盾為題材,語言生動,鄉土氣息濃厚。《打銅鑼》、《補鍋》、《送貨路上》、《野鴨洲》等已攝制成影片。

              湖南花鼓戲 [2]  ,由于流行地區不同而有長沙花鼓戲、岳陽花鼓戲、衡陽花鼓戲、邵陽花鼓戲、常德花鼓戲、零陵花鼓戲等六個流派之分,其都各具不同的藝術風格。它源自湘南民歌發展而成,從一旦一丑演唱發展到“三小”演唱。各地花鼓戲的傳統劇目約有四百多個,音樂曲調三百余支。按其結構和音樂風格的不同可分為川調、打鑼腔、牌子、小調四類,都有粗獷爽朗、地方色彩濃郁的特點。音樂主要是以極具地方特色的湖南花鼓大筒、以及嗩吶、琵琶、笛子、鑼鼓等民族樂器作伴奏。曲調活潑輕快,旋律流暢明快。

              中華人民共和國成立后,花鼓戲藝術有較大發展,不但整理了如《劉海砍樵》、《打鳥》等傳統戲,而且創作了《雙送糧》、《姑嫂忙》、《三里灣》等不少現代戲。如《打銅鑼》、《補鍋》、《送貨路上》、《野鴨洲》等已攝制成影片。特別是唱遍大江南北,風靡海內外的湖南花鼓戲名劇《劉海砍樵》其膾炙人口的“比古調”唱段,深受全國各地的人民群眾所喜愛。 [3] 

              聲腔特色

              湖南花鼓戲的牌子,有走場牌子和鑼鼓牌子,

              花鼓戲百科知識,歷史、簡介、特色和傳統劇目

              劉海砍樵

              源于湘南民歌,以小嗩吶、鑼鼓伴奏,活潑、輕快,適用于歌舞戲,是湘南諸流派主要唱腔之一。 小調。有民歌小調和絲弦小調之分,后者雖屬明、清時調小曲系統,但已地方化。各種形式的曲調,都具有粗獷、爽朗的特點。 表演特點花鼓戲的表演藝術樸實、明快、活潑,行當仍以小丑、小旦、小生的表演最具特色。小丑夸張風趣,小旦開朗潑辣,小生風流灑脫。步法和身段比較豐富,長于扇子和手巾的運用,擁有表現農村生活的各種程式,諸如劃船、挑擔、搗碓、砍柴、打鐵、打銃、磨豆腐、摸泥鰍、放風箏、捉蝴蝶等等。后期由于劇目的發展,表演藝術也有所豐富,如吸收了兄弟劇種的一些毯子功和把子功,充實了武功表演。

              行當 花鼓戲的行當分工也更趨細致,不但由“三小”發展到生、旦、凈、丑,而且“三小”中也有更細的分工。以長沙花鼓戲為例,小丑又分褶子丑、短身丑、官衣丑、爛布丑、奶生丑;小旦又分正旦、二旦、花旦、閨門旦;小生又分正小生、風流小生、武小生、爛布小生、奶生子等。在長期的藝術實踐中,各地的花鼓戲都各有一些著名演員,有長沙的何冬保(丑)、湘潭的廖春山(旦)、邵陽的王佑生(老旦)、桃源的張樹生(生)、岳陽的楊伯成(丑)、衡陽的張廷玉(小生)等。 [3] 

              傳承意義

              湖南花鼓戲蘊含了各個地方獨特的藝術表現形式,吸收了各種民間藝術的精華,是地方傳統文化的一塊瑰寶。 文化是民族的血脈,是人民的精神家園。對花鼓戲的傳承與發展,有助于更好地弘揚地方傳統文化,激發百姓的愛國熱情,凝聚建設和諧社會的精神動力。 

              傳統劇目

              湖南各地的花鼓戲劇目就有400余出,湖北有“大本三十六,小出七十二”的說法,大多是反映人民勞動、男女愛情和家庭矛盾的,例如《打鳥》、《盤花》、《雪梅教子》、《鞭打蘆花》、《繡荷包》、《趕子上路》、《劉海砍樵》、《補鍋》、《告經承》、《蕎麥記》、《天仙配》、《酒醉花魁》等。

              還有一些以喻老四、張德和為主角的戲,都以濃厚的鄉土氣息反映著當地的風土人情。因此花鼓戲與當地人民的生活關系非常密切,再加上語言不同,師承起源不同,流派不同,每個地區的花鼓戲都有各自的風格特色,所以花鼓戲的種類也就五花八門了。

              音樂曲調 花鼓戲的音樂曲調約300余支,基本上是曲牌聯綴結構體,輔以板式變化,根據曲調結構、音樂風格和表現手法的不同,可分為4類:川調。或稱正宮調,即弦子調,大筒、嗩吶伴奏,曲調由過門樂句與唱腔樂句組成,調式、旋律變化豐富,是花鼓戲的主要唱腔。 打鑼腔,又稱鑼腔,曲牌聯綴結構,“腔”、“流”(數板)結合,不托管弦,一人啟口眾人幫和,有如高腔,是長沙、岳陽、常德花鼓戲主要唱腔之一。

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